West Azerbaijan Province

West Azerbaijan Province (Persian: استان آذربایجان غربی‎, Ostān-e Āzarbāijān-e Gharbī) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the northwest of the country, bordering Turkey, Iraq and Nakhchivan, and the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Kurdistan.
The province of West Azerbaijan covers an area of 39,487 km², or 43,660 km² including Lake Urmia. In 2006 the province had a population of 3,015,361.  The capital city and largest city of the province is Urmia.
Permanent settlements were established in the province as early as the 6th millennium BC as excavation at sites such as Teppe Hasanlu establish. In Hasanlu, a famous Golden Vase was found in 1958. The province is the location of Tepe Hajji Firuz, site of some of the world's earliest evidence of wine production. Gooy Teppe is another significant site, where a metal plaque dating from 800 BC was found that depicts a scene from the epic of Gilgamesh.
Ruins such as these and the UNESCO world heritage site at the Sassanid compound of Takht-i-Suleiman illustrate the strategic importance and tumultuous history of the province through the millennia. Overall, the province enjoys a wealth of historical attractions, with 169 sites registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.
Geography and climate
With an area of 43,660 square kilometers, including Lake Urmia, the province of West Azerbaijan is located on the northwest of Iran.
The climate of the province is largely influenced by the rainy winds of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. Cold northern winds affect the province during winter and cause heavy snow.


According to meteorological data, local temperatures vary within the province. Average temperature differs from 9.4 °C in Piranshahr to 11.6 °C in Mahabad, while it is 9.8 °C in Urmia, 10.8 °C in Khoy, 9.4 °C in Piranshahr, and in Mahabad 11.6 °C. According to same data, the highest temperature in the province reaches 34 °C in July, and the lowest temperature is –16 °C in January. Maximum change of temperature in summer is 4 °C and in winter 15 °C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 870 millimetres (34 in) of rainfall equivalent in exposed southern areas down to around 300 millimetres (12 in) in Maku in the north, of which a substantial proportion is snow.
There are no official statistics or census figures on the ethnic makeup of Iran. The bulk of the population in West Azerbaijan Province are mainly Azerbaijanis.[1][2] Also, Kurds[5] are living in some parts of West Azerbaijan. There are three ethnic and religious groups who are native to the province but who have minority status: Assyrians, Armenians, and Jews. There are also immigrants from other parts of Iran in the major cities of the province.
Azeris are living in Chaldoran, Maku, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Naghadeh and Miandoab counties. Kurds are a majority in Oshnaviyeh, Sardasht, Mahabad, Piranshahr and Bukan counties.
Most of West Azarbaijan is inhabited by the Azeris, although kurds form a large portion of the population and some of it constitutes part of Iranian Kurdistan.
The diversity of religions in the province has been a major factor throughout the history of the province. The religions in the province are Shia and Sunni Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Yarasani. Both Azeris and Kurds follow Islam, the Kurds belonging mainly to the Sunni branch and the Azerbaijanis being Shias. There is a very small minority who follow Yarasani (or Ahl-e Haqq, اهل حق). Christianity is the only religion of the Assyrians and Armenians. The Jews follow Judaism. There are also Bahais and Zoroastrians in the province.


West Azerbaijan
province is one of the most important centers of agriculture. This is due to the positive power at the provincial level.
Natural features, including weather conditions (precipitation, humidity, temperature, etc.), resource-rich surface water and groundwater resources, soil, rivers and dams of sediment tank and field bed for the establishment and development of this Agriculture is an important center.
In West Azerbaijan province through the same environmental conditions there is over 2,800 villages with a population of about one million and 180 thousand jobs that it is mainly based on agriculture and animal husbandry, is formed.
The agricultural production: West Azerbaijan province due to its special geographical location and water resources, rich soil, good weather and a creative and active human resources, manufacturing capabilities can be a great addition to domestic needs, as part of the country's needs will disappear.
Also, by providing raw materials to factories and agro-based industries, can be a valuable new job opportunities and provide for rural and urban populations.
The province's most important crops are: wheat, barley, grapes, apples, sugar beets, tobacco, sunflower seeds, etc. - as grapes (raisins acid form) and apples - to be exported abroad.
This exchange is important in the region as well as economic prosperity.
Province of horticultural crops (apples, grapes, apricots and peaches, etc.) in order to concentrate production in different factories, is transferred and dried to form part of these products are exported to world markets.
Apple has long been cultivated in the West Azerbaijan for the local plant, which is very natural and friendly with improved seedlings, the more resistance is a natural pest, has been used (such as apple Turkman), but now, more farmers lunch of Red, Golden and green use.
Industries of the province :
Review the status of West Azerbaijan province compared to total industrial countries shows that despite the major industries and power and potential of having a population equivalent of two quarters of the country's population, only 1/7 percent of the population in the industrial sector are fairly busy.
Major industrial activities in the province because there are good conditions for agriculture and its subdivision, the area favorable for development of agro-based industries (concentrates, fruit juice, you clear the grass, fruit and food processing and cold storage. ') is provided. Since the province's economy is affected by agricultural activities. Those industries that directly or indirectly in connection with this work, have greater success and simply put, this section provides institutions or from waste products and eat it.
In recent years, especially during the five-year development program, steps in the construction of large industrial towns and industrial workshops that can be taken to cement and petrochemical projects, Uremia, Khoy Textile, Tractor Uremia and the types of industries said.
Now the factories are under construction, each of which alone can transform industry and it will become an industrial province (including sugar mills, machine building industry, plastic industry electricity, petrochemicals, animal products and the extraction of important construction projects and ...)
Development capabilities of West Azerbaijan province (the environment):

1. Resources fertile soil, suitable climate
2. Benefit from the rich resources of surface and groundwater and the possibility of extracting and exploiting it for industrial development and agricultural activities
3. Having the appropriate forest lands and industrial production capability, especially spruce
4. Food and agricultural products having a high conversion
5. Benefit from metal mines (copper, Titan, silica, zinc and gold) and non-metallic (decorative stone, building, lime and plaster). Uremia Lake resources (sodium, potassium and magnesium)
6. Proximity to industrial centers in Tabriz and benefit from professional and efficient manpower in the industrial sector
7. There are areas suitable for development Micro machines industries, electronics, biotechnology and petrochemical provinces
8. Proximity with Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan and having points of entry and exit immediately (Poldasht, Bazargan, Sarv, Razi, Piranshahr) and benefit from the seven markets in the border customs border and 9 890 km common border with three countries as an opportunity suitable for the development of foreign trade and transit and export of technical and engineering services, and cultural and artistic exchanges
9. Enjoyment of natural attractions, historical Rs - cultural and nature-prone (especially national parks, Omid lake) for summer and winter tourism and sports (summer and winter tourism)
10. The only way to cross the road and rail transit country, Turkey and Europe and the establishment of the province on the east-west corridor
11. Gas pipeline through Iran - Turkey - Europe for export and transit of oil and gas
12. Possibility of utilizing renewable energy biomass and geothermal

West Azarbaijan province is currently exporting goods to over nine countries, playing a crucial role in national economy. the total exports of the province hit $271 million in the first six months of the current Iranian year (started on March 20)

West Azerbaijan possesses a rich culture, stemming from Azeri and Kurdish traditions. Many local traditions, such as music and dance, continue to survive among the peoples of the province. As a longstanding province of Persia, West Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets.



Last Updated (Wednesday, 09 January 2013 15:03)